Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: W. Saunders, Lehmann, Rosamund. The Weather in the Streets. Merck, Mandy. Myers, JoAnne. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press, Piercy, Marge. Woman at the Edge of Time. The Woman-Identified-Woman Manifesto. Pittsburgh, Pa. Hollywoods Wartime Women: Representation and Ideology. Ann Arbor, Mich.
Research Press, Scott, Bonnie Kime. The Gender of Modernism. Bloomington: Indiana Univer- sity Press, Scott, Sarah. Stopes, Marie. Married Love. London: Victor Golancz, Trollope, Anthony. He Knew He Was Right. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Trombley, Stephen. London: Wiedenfield and Nicolson, Wittig, Monique. The Straight Mind and Other Essays. Boston: Beacon Press, Zola, Emile. The concept of abjection is derived from psychoanaly- sis.
The most influential developments in the theory of abjection have been made by the psychoanalyst and philosopher Julia Kristeva, in her Powers of Horror Abjection refers to the idea that in or- der to remain psychically whole each human subject must reject that which would engulf or destroy it. Death, decay, feces and menstrual blood are all material components of the abject. We can never en- tirely separate ourselves from the abject. We all reject and continu- ally produce these things.
We are all moving toward death and decay, yet the definition of being is the rejection of death. Kristeva draws on both Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan in arguing that the first thing a child abjects is its mothers body. Therefore the maternal, the feminine and the material in general are all linked in the theory of ab- jection. The lesbian theorist Judith Butler has developed Kristevas the- ory of abjection in relation to gender in her Bodies That Matter She argues that opposite poles of gendered masculinity and femininity can be maintained only through the abjection of gender- less, transgender or intersex individuals.
The construction of gen- der, she says, operates by exclusionary means. This name was sometimes given to a group of wealthy lesbian, bisexual and transgender women writers, artists and intellectuals who congregated in Paris from to the late s. This group was also sometimes referred to as The Amazons. This salon was first focused on the poet Rene Vivien and, after Viviens illness and death, around the writer Natalie Clifford Barney. Halls The Well of Loneliness presents a fictionalized de- scription of this salon, and of Barneys garden, with its Greek temple motif, where they would often gather.
The American poet, performance artist and novelist Kathy Acker was born and raised in New York, and lived for lengthy periods in both London and California. Trained first as a poet, Acker maintained a fascination with the power of language throughout her life. She claimed the beat writer William Boroughs as an early major influence, and was later interested in the work of Monique Wittig.
Acker is often described as a postmodernist. Her narrators and characters speak in many-layered voices and illustrate unstable and troubling identities. Written in the first person, it includes biographical details of Ackers own life but also factual historical information on the lives of a number of 19th-century women convicted of murder. This blending of charac- ters, free play with fact and extensive borrowing of material led to at least one legal action against Acker by another writer. Her intent, however, was not to plagiarize, but to throw into question the nature of accepted truth, the origin of speech and the integrity of human identity.
Often, Acker used these techniques to highlight the invisi- bility of the female voice and the instability of gender. An epigraph to a section of her Don Quixote reads, Being dead, Don Quixote could no longer speak. Being born into and part of a male world, she had no speech of her own. All she could do was read male texts that werent her own. Blood and Guts in High School is a biographical novel that first earned her a devoted following, among which were many les- bians.
She also wrote an opera entitled Birth of a Poet, the screenplay for the film Variety, directed by Bette Gordon, and collected some of her critical writings in Bodies of Work: Essays At the time of her death from cancer in , she was working on Eurydice in the Under- world.
The English journalist and poet Valentine Ackland was a public cross-dresser by the time she reached adulthood in the s. Her life partner was the writer Sylvia Townsend Warner. Together the two women published a book of verse entitled Whether a Dove or a Seagull in Both women were committed leftists, and in response to the rise of fascism in Eu- rope, Ackland joined the communist party in the s.
She worked as assistant to a British medical unit serving the leftist cause in the Spanish Civil War. This work was finally published in The Ghanaian poet, playwright and nov- elist Ama Ata Aidoo has attempted to define feminism and womens writing in specifically African ways. Teaching in Ghana, Kenya and the United States she has spoken out against the brain drain, which draws valuable African intellectuals into the West and against the ob- jectification of African women by white Western feminists. Her essay Literature, Feminism and the African Woman Today de- scribes this objectification, defines a relationship between African feminism and African literature and literary criticism, and also ac- knowledges homophobia as a component of gender oppression.
In an innovative mixture of prose and poetry this novel tells the story of a Ghanaian scholarship student who spends a year abroad in Germany and Eng- land. The female protagonist has two relationships, one with a black man and one with a white woman, each of whom objectify her in dif- ferent ways. The lesbian desire of the protagonists white German friend is portrayed as the desire to possess an exotic other rather than as a product of the characters identity.
The concept of masculine or feminine aim, as it derives from 19th-century sexual psychology, refers to an individuals drive to- ward gender identification. Does one want to dress, live, work, love, in a masculine or a feminine manner? The distinction between masculine and feminine aim is often read as the distinction between AIM 3 activity and passivity, respectively. As developed through Freudian psychoanalysis, the concept of aim, and its distinction from object- choice, allows a more complicated view of sexual identity.
From the s, the science of sexology often confused the desire for a person of the same sex with the desire to be a person of the opposite gen- der. This confusion has an even longer tradition in literature. The dis- tinction between aim and object-choice eventually allowed the dis- tinction between transgender and lesbian identities. Within Sigmund Freuds case studies, as for example his Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman, there remains an apparent confusion between aim and object-choice.
Freud notes that the bisexual object of his patients desire is romantically active and a feminist, suggest- ing that these masculine aims explain her same-sex desires. Allegory refers to the literary and dramatic practice of substituting one set of events or persons for another in an extended metaphor. Objects, people or actions in an allegorical narrative stand in for other objects, people or actions, or for concepts, ideas or states of being.
For example, in medieval European morality plays charac- ters called sin and virtue battled over characters called the soul. This is a felicitous example because allegorical narratives tend to invite and to be associated with ideas of morality. In many eras when lesbian love, sex and sentiment were unaccept- able in certain areas of literature, lesbian writers used allegory as a means of communicating about their dissident desires, practices and feelings.
Both the historical past and the future are fertile sites for the creation of allegory. The lesbian writer Mary Renault told tales of an- cient Greek male love as a way of communicating about modern same- sex desires and gay and lesbian identities. Likewise lesbian science fic- tion writers throughout the 20th century used allegorical devices to talk about same-sex desires. Speaking of lesbian and gay 19th-century po- etry and fiction, Graham Robb says that allegory could create another world in which whole dramas were acted out and even brought to sat- isfactory conclusions.
In any era when lesbian writers felt wary of overt expression, allegory became an important tool. She was raised in Pueblo culture and draws on it for much of her work. Allen began her aca- demic career in a study of the influence of oral tradition on Native American literature. Her first book was Blind Lion Poems In she developed her own brand of mystical spirituality based on the woman-centered religion, myths and traditions of Pueblo and other Native American peoples in The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the Feminine in American Indian Tra- dition.
In the introduction to this work Allen comes out as a lesbian. The Sacred Hoop was influential in the womens spirituality move- ment burgeoning in the s and s and is an important exam- ple of American cultural feminism. She has also written a number of childrens books and collected four decades of her poetry in the volume Life Is a Fatal Disease: Col- lected Poems The American poet, performance artist and novelist Dorothy Allison was born and raised in a working- class family in South Carolina. Her Southern, white, working-class lesbian identity defines her work.
These poems express the alienation experienced by a southern working- class lesbian, even at the height of second-wave feminisms popu- larity.
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In many ways this work lies in the tradition of confessional po- etry exemplified by poets such as Ann Sexton and Sylvia Plath. Much of it functions as autobiography and this creates its impact. The Women Who Hate Me discusses lesbian sex, sexual abuse, same-sex domestic violence, rural and urban poverty. All of this hinges on the insight and integrity of the central first person character who narrates the poems. In Allison achieved widespread recognition for the novel Bastard Out of Carolina.
This semiautobiographical work, which tells of the violent sexual abuse of a lesbian child by her stepfather, communicated trauma in a way that no novel had for decades. It also communicated all of Allisons political convictions through the straightforward narration of the truth of one life. I try to live as naked as I can, she has said.
Bastard gained Allison a devoted read- ership and audience for her performance work. Angelica Houston produced a television adaptation of the novel. Skin added the American Library Associ- ations award to Allisons other distinctions. She published a second novel, Cavedweller, in , and a collection of stories entitled Trash in Allison has founded the Independent Spirit Award for an in- dividual who contributes to the ongoing work of small presses in the United States. She is a committed anticensorship feminist and mem- ber of PEN international. The word amazon first appeared in English in the medieval period, deriving from references to Classical Greek and Latin litera- ture.
The myth of the amazons in Classical Greece and Rome referred to a race of independent warriors, living in a women-only or female- dominated society who lived in what is now northern Turkey. Inter- estingly there is now evidence at two archeological sites in Turkey of an early agricultural, Goddess-worshipping culture in which women held a great deal of power.
Could the myth be based on the memory of these people? In any event, these archeological sources inspired Ri- ane Eislers The Chalice and the Blade , a significant, though heterosexually biased, example of cultural feminist spirituality. The most significant example of the amazon in late classical liter- ature is surely Virgils Aeniad. Queen Califia and her woman-only band of warriors present a group of powerful, active and independent women in a remarkably positive light. Early modern literature drew extensively on classical examples of amazon warriors.
These were sometimes presented as exciting and sometimes as threatening. In both classical Greece and Rome and in early modern England, the myth of a fierce, matriarchal society seems to have been placed at the borders of empire. European colonists imagined amazons in South America. If patriarchal empire defined itself as the epitome of civi- lization and justified its dominance of other peoples through creating them as barbaric, then matriarchy, as opposed to imperial patriarchy, seems to have functioned as one sign of this barbarism.
Kathryn 6 AMAZON Schwarzs Tough Love: Amazon Encounters in the English Renais- sance gives an overview of the amazon topos in early modern English literature and presents a theory about the gender anxieties that give rise to the use of the amazon in culture. The history of lesbian literature includes a thread of texts that play on the idea of the amazon.
Natalie Clifford Barney was known as the amazon and the circle of lesbian writers and artists who sur- rounded her were sometimes referred to as The Amazons. Charlotte Perkins Gillmans Herland presented a female only society whose members could reproduce by parthenogenesis. Monique Wit- tigs lesbian feminist classic Les Gurillires is the epic story of a conflict between amazon and patriarchal warriors.
Marion Zim- mer Bradleys Darkover Series of fantasy novels includes a com- munity of amazons among its array of cultural groups. The American editor and writer Margaret Anderson is of literary significance for her founding and editing of the modernist journal The Little Review. During her early adult life in New York she was a member of a group of bisex- ual, lesbian and heterosexual feminist activists that included Emma Goldman.
Long term collaborators and partners were Jane Heap and later Georgette Leblanc. Anderson founded The Little Review in Chicago in where it was published until During its 15 year life the journal was based in San Francisco during , Chicago again , New York and Paris Anderson serialized James Joyces Ulysses in and was brought up on obscenity charges.
Both Anderson and Jane Heap were found guilty and fined. During the life of the journal Anderson began an extensive corre- spondence with the modernist poet Ezra Pound, which has survived. During the s she also contributed reviews to the modernist jour- nal The Dial. She published a Little Review Anthology in She wrote a work of fiction, Forbidden Fires, which wasnt published until 23 years after her death. Anthologies have been a particularly important tool in the lesbian-feminist movement. Collections of writings by lesbian women allow authors and editors to express a collective lesbian- feminist voice and identity that works against the phallic notion of the lone individual subject and the lone individual creative artist.
Since the pulp productions of the s, countless anthologies of les- bian fiction have been produced, covering any variety of historical periods, cultural positions and identity categories. Historically based anthologies like Lillian Fadermans landmark Chloe Plus Olivia: An Anthology of Lesbian Literature from the Sev- enteenth Century to the Present solidify the idea of lesbian identity by creating a sense of historical progress and continuity.
Terry Castles The Literature of Lesbianism: A Historical Anthology from Ariosto to Stonewall follows current scholarship by questioning this notion of a continuous lesbian identity. Instead Cas- tle traces the history of what she calls the lesbian topos in Western literature over the past five centuries. In response to the racial, class, age, ability, gender and national bias of midth-century feminism, anthologies have asserted a num- ber of increasingly specific identity positions and sought to articulate both specific and diverse experiences of lesbianism and bisexuality from these positions.
McKinley and DeLaney L. Joyce The language used in the titles here is il- luminating. It indicates a particular position in terms of power and identity through both spatial metaphor The Very Inside and a cel- ebration of particular dialect and idiom Does Your Mama Know? Any number of generic categories have produced specifically lesbian anthologies, from the obvious love poetry and erotica to science fiction and detective fiction. Amore complete list of lesbian literary anthologies is provided at the back of this dictionary.
She received a mas- ters degree from the University of Texas and was completing a doc- torate at the time of her death. She began her career teaching the chil- dren of migrant workers and began academic work as a lecturer at San Francisco State University in Anzalda is best remembered for her influential interventions in postcolonial theory.
She redefined ideas of identity and nationalism in ways that have had a far-reaching effect on a generation of lesbian, feminist and postcolonial theorists. Anzalda refused to prioritize any of the many identity categories into which she was placed, and made this refusal into an argument for destabilizing the identities that form targets for violent oppression, alienate individuals and divide cultural groups.
At the same time she would fearlessly and produc- tively challenge perpetrators of racism, homophobia and classism. In her writings and interviews she describes her teaching methods. She consciously and carefully broke through the barriers that kept her students from challenging each other, while encouraging them to re- spect each others positions.
Thus, she welds form and content in chal- lenging the unified consciousness of her readers. For these reasons many academics find her writings a powerful teaching tool. Anzalda promoted the notion of new tribalism as an antidote to the worst dangers and excesses of nationalism. New tribalism, as she saw it, ANZALDA, GLORIA 9 would allow peoples to name their oppression in groups without seeing those categories as exhaustive or limiting and without playing into the hands of capitalist nation-building enterprises.
Her ideas on nationalism can be categorized with those of Edward Said and Gayatri Spivak. An- zaldas lesbian identity formed one of the flashpoints of her cultural cri- tique. She was a committed lesbian-feminist, but would never allow this to form an exhaustive definition of who she was. Throughout her life, in spite of increasing world popularity, she demonstrated her polit- ical commitment by publishing consistently with Aunt Lute Press, which describes itself as a not-for-profit, multicultural womens press. She has also written several bilingual childrens books. The vast majority of criticism that exists on homosexuality in Arabic literature, both classical and modern, focuses on male same-sex desire.
There is, however, considerable evidence of female same-sex desire and transgender movement since the classical period. This doesnt seem so much to have been censored as it has been ignored. There are a number of Arabic words for female same- sex practices. These include sihaq, which, like the English tribadism, focus on the idea of sexual activity in the absence of a penis. The net result is the samelack of visibility.
Stephen O. Murray argues that female same-sex activity was ignored in both Classical Greek and Arabic culture unless either or both of the women violated gender norms by assuming a masculinized identity or performing sex acts that were considered the province of men. Paul Sprachman reports that Persian literature paints lesbianism as decidedly unexciting.
In Europe the case was very different. The letters of Lady Wortley Montague, first published in the 18th century, were one point of origin for these fantasies. Jeannette Foster also iden- tifies an older 16th century text called La Fleur Lascive Orientale, which may have contributed to cross-dressing and transgender fan- tasy tales in Europe.
By the 19th century when Richard Burton made his influential and highly personalized translation of the Thousand and One Nights, he claimed in a note that harems were hotbeds of lesbianism. The one poet who receives any attention is Walladah Bint Al- Mustakfi, who lived in Andalusia in the 11th century. Al-Mustakfi was part of a strong female tradition of lyric poetry in Arabic. Within the discipline of womens studies those of her poems with lesbian content are sometimes ignored, as they have often been by male scholars of Arabic literature.
Currently, there is an active movement among Arabic lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people. This is giving rise to an emerging literature. At least one Internet listserv specifically for Arabic les- bians, called Iman faith , exists. He is celebrated as an innovator in both the use of imagi- native language and narrative structure. Ariosto is significant here for his long poem Orlando Furioso. The poem, covering Europes war with the Saracens, was begun in and first appeared in print in Venice in One of its tangential episodes describes the confu- sion caused by the cross-dressing woman Bradamante.
A women, Fiordispina, falls in love with her, thinking that she is her brother. Both Jeannette Foster and Terry Castle focus on this as an important moment in the history of sexually dissident women in literature. Fos- ter, however, records the earlier medieval Huon of Bordeaux as the first of these romances of cross-dressing confusion. This narrative motif remained popular until the nineteenth century.
Literary awards serve an important function in creating recog- nition, support and infrastructure for particular areas of literature. AWARDS 11 Gradually as the 20th century went forward, lesbians and other women sought to create such supports for womens, and specifically lesbian, writing through the establishment of a variety of specific literary prizes. An early prize that is significant to the history of lesbian litera- ture is the French Prix Femina. The prize isnt exclusive to lesbian lit- erature but is perhaps the first woman-centered literary prize.
In place since , it is decided each year by an all-female jury. Another important French prize is given yearly by the Acadmie Goncourt. Both Colette and Franoise Mallet-Joris have held lifetime chairs at the academy. Gittings wanted to promote the availability of lesbian and gay litera- ture in libraries so that no adolescent would have to experience the dearth of information she found in libraries as a young woman.
The first recipient was Isabel Miller in The original award has now grown into several Stonewall Awards. The Lambda Literary Founda- tion has been granting awards for lesbian and gay literature since The lesbian writer Dorothy Allison has founded the Indepen- dent Spirit Award, for dedication to the work of small presses. Alli- son has done this because small presses are often the places where those on the margins of political, economic and cultural activity in- cluding lesbians can find a place for their work. In Great Britain no large scale lesbian literary award exists.
The Orange Prize for womens fiction was established by members of the publishing industry in Lesbians remain underrepresented in its list of winners. The French novelist Honor de Balzac began his literary career writing what would now be called pulp fiction. He turned to more serious or high-culture work in the s, and is best known for the interconnected series of novels known col- lectively as the Comedie Humaine. Significant here are three works. Seraphitus-Seraphita has an androgynous heroine. Neither affair is consummated, but this is in some ways Balzacs kindest portrait of a sexually dissident woman.
The eponymous antiheroine of La Cousine Bette displays an evil-tinged infatuation with another woman. It is The Girl with the Golden Eyes , however, which is most re- marked upon by scholars who study the image of the lesbian in litera- ture. Another evil lesbian figure, this time entirely overt, is here called Margarita. She has seduced and corrupted and eventually murders the heros object of desire, young Paquita. This novel is important in the history of French decadent literature, both poetry and prose, in which the image of excessive, often lesbian, feminine desire, figures strongly.
The novelist born Ann Weldy is the most cel- ebrated of American lesbian pulp writers of the s and s. She eventually earned a Ph. During the s and early s, however, she lived with a husband and children in the suburbs of New York City, occa- sionally traveling into Manhattan to visit the urban lesbian subculture in which most of her novels were set.
Bannon was one of the lucky writ- ers to work under the editorship of Fiona Nevler at Fawcett Publica- tions, a major pulp house then based in Connecticut. Bannon is famous for a group of novels referred to as the Beebo Brinker Series. These nov- els trace several characters through various permutations of relation- ships with each other.
They began with Odd Girl Out , which was an immediate publishing success. Barbara Grier has reported that this was the best-selling paperback original of The novel traces a love triangle between two women and one man. Man and woman eventually marry, but later novels return to describe the failure of the character Beths marriage and her eventual journey to New York in search of her woman lover. I Am a Woman introduced the butch heroine Beebo Brinker.
Woman in the Shadows details Beebos emotional breakdown and is in many ways the most abject and negative, but also the most interesting novel of the series. Journey to a Woman re- turns to the character Beth and details the resolution of her lesbian iden- tity. An offshoot of this series, The Marriage details the mar- riage of convenience that takes place between two characters, Jack and Laura, from the Beebo Brinker Series.
In Cleis Press again re-released them at a time when the mass-market lesbian paperback had finally achieved recognition as a significant generic category in the study of the his- tory of lesbian fiction. Ann Bannon has been interviewed repeatedly about her life and her writings. Gay Community News published an interview with her in and the documentary films Before Stonewall and Forbidden Love also feature Bannon. She studied visual art in New York City then embarked on a career as a play- wright, illustrator and journalist before moving to Paris in The theme of a woman-centered abjection, which is begun here, continues throughout her work and makes it important both historically and theoretically.
Among Barness earliest literary works were plays performed by the now famous Provincetown Play- ers in and Throughout her literary career Barnes contin- ued to produce illustrations, which appeared alongside her journalis- tic work and as an integral part of some of her book projects.
From to Barnes lived in Paris where she was employed as a journalistic correspondent by several magazines, including Mc- Calls, Vanity Fair, Charm and New Yorker. Much of this work con- sisted of interviews with the social, artistic and literary figures then comprising the bohemian Paris with which America was so fasci- nated. It was also during these years that Barnes produced her most important literary works. A Book combines the gen- res of poetry, memoir and fiction.
Ladies Almanack is a lov- ing satire based on the circle of women known variously as The Ama- zons or the Academy of Women, which included the most important lesbian literary figures residing in Paris between the wars. This book was first privately printed, but is now widely available. In the same year Barnes produced Ryder, a kind of autobiography dis- guised as allegory.
Ryder focuses its ideas of family, descent and in- heritance on the connections between female figures. Though the novel itself is clearly a conscious exploration of sexual inversion all three of its central characters are sexually dissident , Barnes was annoyed to be categorized as a lesbian by her readers in the s and s.
In later life she refused any ascription of sexual identity, saying that she was simply a person who had loved Thelma Wood. Sadly, one reason why Nightwood is more widely read and more highly regarded than other of Barnes works is that her friend T. Eliot praised the work highly and wrote two separate introductions to early editions. Still the novel is deeply significant in its own right. Its surrealist style is a landmark in literary modernism, fusing poetically phrased psycho- logical monologues with Gothic description and narrative structure to produce a kind of unconscious map of the modern sexual city.
Night- wood is significant in the history of lesbian literature in that it moves beyond the desire of contemporary works to produce portraits of les- bianism as either good or bad. It is a story of specifically lesbian desire and loss, which created a new space for the lesbian character in literature. At the same time the influence of both psychoanalysis and sexology can be read in the books characters, as can evidence of the lesbian subculture of Paris between the wars. Barnes moved back to New York City in and remained there for the rest of her life. Her last significant work was a verse play called The Antiphon Before her death she sold her papers to the University of Maryland, where they remain.
Natalie Barney is perhaps better known as a social figure portrayed in the writings of other lesbians than she is for her own work. Early in her adult life she was the lover of the poet Rene Vivien. Together the two women traveled extensively and studied classical Greek language and litera- ture. After Viviens death, Barney carried forward her ideal of a mod- ern lesbian life patterned on the classical example of Sappho. While writing highly popular memoirs and less recognized poetry, she held a salon at her Paris home, where her garden contained a faux Greek temple.
Collections of her autobio- graphical writings include Penses dun Amazon and Nou- velles penses dun Amazon The decadent French poet Charles Baudelaire is significant here for his portrayals of ex- cessive lesbian figures. Baudelaire traveled in the French colonies as a young man, absorbing both an orientalist aesthetic and a cynical attitude toward bourgeois French social culture. In he pub- lished Les fleurs du mal, which was quickly prosecuted for obscen- ity.
The section entitled Les femmes damnes associates the les- bian figure with horror and excess. Like the other figures of horror in Baudelaires work, however, lesbians are clearly a source of ab- ject pleasure here. Ultra Violet Library. DAW Book Collectors. Phoenix Poets Series. Rainbow Pocketboeken. Europese literatuurcollectie.
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Masters' Counterpoints by Larry Townsend. Mega by B. Minimax by Anna Livia. Mirage by Perry Brass. Not Me by Eileen Myles. Rebellion: Essays by Minnie Bruce Pratt. Sex-Charge by Perry Brass. Shadows of Aggar by Chris Anne Wolfe. Sorry Now? Steam by Jay B. Stranded by Camarin Grae. Vampires Anonymous by Jeffrey N. What I love about lesbian politics is arguing with people I agree with by Kris Kovick. Zeta Base by Judith Alguire. According to Her Contours by Nancy Boutilier. Almost History by Christopher Bram. Aquamarine by Carol Anshaw. And The Diva by Rupert Kinnard. Ceremonies: Prose and Poetry by Essex Hemphill.
Crygender by Thomas T. Cultivating Excess by Lori Anderson. The Daddy Machine by Johnny Valentine. Deaths of Jocasta by J. The Dream Life by Bo Huston. Dreamships by Melissa Scott. Empathy by Sarah Schulman. Final Atonement by Steve Johnson. Wilson, John D. Latin Moon in Manhattan by Jaime Manrique. Although these primary works share a common namesake, however, the cultural, religious, ethnic and ethical values relating to the women within them vary considerably. Karch's abundant use of parody forces the reader to question the cultural construct of gender while simultaneously calling attention to dysfunctional family dynamics.
By presenting two illfated narratives of excess, one in Medieval Baghdad and another in contemporary Algiers and Brussels, Moeschler offers a diachronic reproachment of female hypersexuality and Western misperceptions of the East. In addition to subverting Orientalist stereotypes of Scheherazade, Sebbar, Karch and Moeschler refute the binary opposition between sexuality and maternity, thereby proferring a redefinition of women's voice, power and identity in the twenty-first century. Parents: This work has no parents. Tweet Share.
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